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Tittel: Feasibility study on CO2 field laboratories for monitoring and safety assessment
Kommentar: .
Forfattere:Aagaard, P., Miranda-Barbosa, E., Kitterød, N., Rasse, D. & et, a.
Navn på utgivelse: TECHNICAL REPORT
Publikasjonstype: Rapport i ekstern rapportserie
Utgivelsesår: 2006
Avdeling: Bioforsk Jord og Miljø - Ås
Fagområde: Jord, vann og miljø
Sammendrag: This document contains a summary of some techniques that can be used for CO2 monitoring considering a field laboratory site with an injection depth in the order of hundreds of meters. We will mainly focus on seismic: 3D and 4D surface seismic, acoustic image, multicomponent (MC) seismic, microseismic monitoring, boreholebased seismic, 4D cross-hole seismic surveying, 4D vertical seismic profiling (VSP); acoustic sonar bathimetry techniques; gravimetric techniques; electrical or electromagnetic techniques: electrical resistance tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar, borehole radar, magnetotellurics; but geochemical techniques are included, like isotope methods, geochemical tracers, water chemistry. Finally, soil gas techniques and remote sensing methods area also described in this document. Storage of CO2 in geological formations is feasible on industrial scale. At the same time there is a requirement from Environmental and Health Authorities for documentation of subsurface behaviour of CO2. In this document we summarize different approaches for monitoring of subsurface migration, leakage and chemical reactions of CO2. We suggest performing studies at different scales including laboratory and field experiments. The methods we suggest has special emphasize on early detection of small amounts of CO2 migration. Of that reason the main focus of this report is on indirect geophysical monitoring (viz seismic, electrical and electromagnetic methods). To document subsurface reactions we also include geochemical methods. We suggest including ecological monitoring as an integrated part of the field experiments. Ecological monitoring will provide detection (or confirmation) of moderate CO2 leakage to the soil surface, and at the same time quantify effects on the vegetation of potentially leakages from geologically-stored CO2. In order to add value to the monitoring program, we recommend initiating simulation of monitoring experiments as early as possible in the project. Simulation of monitoring experiments should then be coupled to inverse flow simulations in order to optimize the monitoring program. Finally, monitoring of two specific field sites is suggested: The Brumunddal sandstone, and the Svelvik ridge in the outlet of the Drammensfjord. The preliminary budget for monitoring a field experiment on each side is 27.3 and 30.2 million NOK respectively. Recommendations for further work include: " Geological characterization of storage site and surrounding area. " Production of geological and numerical flow models of storage site and surrounding area. " Simulation of CO2 injection into the geological formation to identify potential migration and thus leakage points. This includes physical and chemical changes of the reservoir rock and surrounding strata. " Risk assessment to identify features, events and processes that might lead to the migration of CO2 and potential leakage. " Establish monitoring based on step 3 and 4 above. This includes monitoring of subsurface and surface area surrounding the storage site. " History matching of observations and simulation results (and if necessary modification of monitoring acquisitions).