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Measured variables

1. Daily/hourly

Weather data

Precipitation (mm)

Air temperature (10 and 200 cm above ground) (°C)

Soil temperature (10 and 20 cm depths) (°C)

Global radiation (W/m2)

Relative humidity (%)

Wind speed 200 cm above ground (ms-1)

Sunshine duration (W/m2)

A standard automatic weather station 200 m to the southeast of the field

 2. Every month

Drainage and surface water

Total nitrogen



Total phosphorus


Total potassium

Total soil losses

Total water runoff


3. Once a year


Grain yield (15 % moisture content) (Mg ha-1)

Straw yield (Mg DM ha-1)

Protein content (%)

Grain moisture content (%)

Thousand grain weight (g)

Falling number (s)

Hecto litre weight (kg)


Dry matter yield (Mg DM ha-1)


Total yield (Mg DM ha-1)


External and internal defects


4. Infrequently

Soil physics

Sand (%), silt (%), clay (%), gravel (%),

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (cm/h)

Pore size distribution (%)

Dry bulk density (Mg/m3)

Soil chemistry

Ignition loss (%)

Organic carbon


Plant available phosphorus, potassium, manganese, calcium – extracted with a mixture of ammonium lactate and acetic acid (AL-methode)

Acid soluble potassium (K-HNO3)

Total nitrogen (by Kjeldahl distillation)

Trace elements: Fe, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cd

Soil biology


(Ref: Andersen, A. & R. Eltun 1999. Long-term development in the carabid and staphylinid (Col.,Carabidae and Staphylinidae) fauna during conversion from conventional to biological farming. J. Appl. Ent. 124: 51-56.)

Soil microbial biomass

(Ref: Breland, T. A. & R. Eltun 1999. Soil microbial biomass and mineralization of carbon and nitrogen in ecological, integrated and conventional forage and arable cropping systems. Biol. Fertil. Soils. 30: 193-201.)


(Ref: Riley, H., Pommeresche, R., Eltun, R., Hansen, S. and Korsaeth, A. 2008. Soil structure, organic matter and earthworm activity in a comparison of cropping systems with contrasting tillage, rotations, fertilizer levels and manure use. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 124: 275-284.)





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